Introduction to Polymers and FTIR

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Semiconductor and integrated circuit developments continue to proceed at an incredible pace. For example, today's microprocessor chips have one thousand times the processing power of those a decade ago. These challenges have been accomplished because of the integrated circuit industry’s ability to track something known as Moore’s Law. Moore’s Law states that an integrated circuit’s processing power will double every two years. This has been accomplished by making devices smaller and smaller. The industry is also pushing to use semiconductor devices in an increasing array of applications. To accomplish this, the industry is adopting a number of new packages that incorporate polymers to reduce cost, reduce weight, and increase performance. Polymers and FTIR is a 1.5-day course that offers detailed instruction on the technology issues associated with polymers in semiconductor packages and electronics. We place special emphasis on current package technology issues like interposers, substrates, stress relief layers, and tools for package analysis. This course is a must for every manager, engineer, and technician working in semiconductor packaging, using semiconductor components in high performance applications or non-standard packaging configurations, or supplying packaging tools to the industry.

By focusing on current issues in packaging technology, participants will learn why advances in the industry are occurring along certain lines and not others. Our instructors work hard to explain semiconductor packaging without delving heavily into the complex physics and materials science that normally accompany this discipline.

What Will I Learn By Taking This Course?

Participants learn basic but powerful aspects about the semiconductor packaging. This skill-building series is divided into four segments:

  1. Polymer Technology Overview. Participants study the polymers and their properties. They learn how those properties affect their operation and their consideration for various applications in semiconductor and electronics packaging.
  2. Case Histories. Participants learn the issues surrounding polymers through the use of teaching through case histories. They learn about the advantages and disadvantages to various applications through real examples.
  3. Spectroscopy. Participants learn the fundamentals of spectroscopy. They also study the data that both infrared and vibration spectroscopy can provide for analysis of polymers and other organic materials.
  4. FTIR. Participants specifically learn about Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, how it works, and its applications in the semiconductor and electronics industries.

Course Objectives

  1. The seminar will provide participants with an in-depth understanding of polymers and their use in semiconductor packaging technology and electronics.
  2. Participants will understand the key properties behind polymers and how they influence their use in various applications.
  3. The seminar will identify the major properties such as glass transition temperatures, viscoelastic behavior, coefficients of thermal expansion, water absorption and adhesion.
  4. Participants will work through several case histories showing the use of polymers in various applications.
  5. Participants will learn about spectroscopy, including the properties of infrared and vibrational spectroscopy.
  6. The seminar will provide an in-depth understanding of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), including its operation and its components.
  7. The seminar will also discuss how to interpret FTIR spectra.

Course Outline

Day 1

  1. General Background Information
    1. Examples of Natural & Synthetic polymers
    2. Typical Applications of Polymers across industries
  2. Use of Polymers in the Packaging Technologies
    1. Advantages of Polymers for Packaging
    2. Disadvantages of polymers
    3. Example of a typical organic substrate
    4. Example of a typical organic package
    5. Example of a complex Multi Chip Module
  3. Fundamentals of Polymers
    1. What is a Polymer?
    2. Molecular Weight and Poly-dispersity
    3. Modulus Vs Molecular Weight & Temperature
    4. Differences between small molecules and polymers
    5. What is the difference between thermopastics and thermosets
      1. Cross linking that leads to thermosets
  4. Key Polymer Property – The Glass Transition Phenomenon
    1. Glass Transition Phenomenon
    2. Free Volume Theory
    3. Factors that influence Tg
    4. Impact of Tg on various aspects of polymers
  5. Key Polymer Properties and the issues they create when integrated into semiconductor application, and how to measure them
    1. Glass Transition Temperature
    2. Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
    3. Static Mechanical Behavior – Stress-Strain Curves
    4. Viscoelastic Behavior
    5. Water Absorption
    6. Adhesion
  6. Case Studies to demonstrate failure analysis of packages and the causes
    1. Case Study 1: Connectors & CTE
    2. Case Study 2: Degradation of Thermal Interface Matls
    3. Case Study 3: Rubber/Sealant Delamination
  7. Speciality Polymers and their uses in the packaging industry
    1. Polyimide
    2. Liquid Crystalline Polymers

Day 2

  1. Introduction to spectroscopy
    1. Where does the Infrared radiation fall (frequency or wavelength) in the electromagnetic spectrum?
      1. How do UV and visible radiation compare to IR in the EM spectrum
    2. How does the IR EM radiation interact with molecules and how we benefit to investigate chemicals?
    3. What is Vibrational Spectroscopy?
      1. Fundamentals of spectroscopy - how does it work?
      2. What makes molecules sensitive to IR spectroscopy?
      3. Selection rules that govern vibrations that interact with IR to absorb the radiation
  2. Comparison of commonly used investigative techniques
    1. 1General Use of FTIR
      1. Spectroscopic technique to identify chemical species with some specificity
  3. IR Instrumentation
    1. Components of an IR instrument – what is the instrument made up of?
    2. Traditional dispersive instruments, how they function and their limitations.
    3. Modern Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) instrument and its function
      1. Description of Michelson’s interferometer
      2. What is Fourier transform and why is it used?
      3. Advantages of FT
  4. Conclusions

Instructional Strategy

By using a combination of instruction by lecture, classroom exercises, and question/answer sessions, participants will learn practical information on semiconductor packaging and the operation of this industry. From the very first moments of the seminar until the last sentence of the training, the driving instructional factor is application. We use instructors who are internationally recognized experts in their fields that have years of experience (both current and relevant) in this field.

Instructor Profile

Shalabh Tandon, Ph.D.

Shalabh received his B.A. in Chemistry from Carthage College in Kenosha, Wisconsin, and subsequent Doctorate in Polymer Science and Engineering, 1997, from the Department of Polymer Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Shalabh joined Intel in 1997 working in the quality and reliability group supporting failure analysis of packages and polymer materials. He focused on thermo-mechanical material characterization (focus on polymers) to understand their constitutive behavior, as well as to establish techniques to determine polymer component reliability in semiconductor applications. He led various Intel teams to develop and improve polymer materials for specific semiconductor applications that were capable of meeting stringent operating requirement, as well as identifying polymeric materials to enable new substrate technologies. Currently, Shalabh’s focus has shifted to development of reliable equipment used to test Intel CPUs to ensure that product quality and reliability is not compromised by the tester fleet in a high volume manufacturing environment. Shalabh has published over 25 internal and external articles, has a patent, and has several internal technical achievement awards.

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