Fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits (ICs) is arguably one of the most advanced manufacturing processes ever developed. A state-of-the-art IC requires a ultra clean environment, ultra pure chemicals and gases, highly sophisticated fabrication tools, and a team with extensive knowledge of chemical engineering, semiconductor physics, modeling, and logistics management. The materials in this section cover the main disciplines or steps used in semiconductor fabrication. They include: Growth and preparation of the starting material (Si, GaAs, or other semiconductor materials), Diffusion, Oxidation, Cleaning, Ion Implantation, Lithography, Chemical Vapor Deposition Physical Vapor Deposition and Chemical Mechanical Planarization.
(Includes this and other materials.)
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Basic CMOS Process Animation
Basic CMOS Manufacturing Process in 3D
This course covers the materials that are used in semiconductor processing. The main focus of this material is on low-k materials, but will be expanded to include chemicals and gases.
Alternate Channel Materials
Low-K Materials Properties - Part 1
Low-K Materials Properties - Part 2
Etch Stop Materials for Low-K Applications
Etch Stop Materials for Low-K Applications (Japanese)
Designers use Bipolar and BiCMOS technologies when they must accurately control and manipulate analog signals. The bipolar transistor has several qualities that allow the engineers to better control the behavior of the circuit, like better matching, lower noise levels, higher current drives, and higher cutoff frequencies. We discuss the physics of bipolar circuit operation, basic bipolar processes, and BiCMOS processes.
CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) is the most common chip technology in use today. More than 90% of all integrated circuit fabricated today use CMOS technology. CMOS makes excellent digital logic because of its large digital noise immunity and low background current. This course covers the properties of silicon, the behavior of the MOS capacitor, the p-n junction, and the device physics of the MOS transistor.
LOCOS and STI (Process Integration)
Gate First vs. Gate Last
Special Processing Techniques
Mobility Enhancement Techniques
Source Drain Extensions
Salicide and BEOL
CMOS Design Considerations
Quiz: Basic CMOS Process Flow
Quiz: Process Integration
Gate First vs Gate Last