Testing is a key aspect of reliability evaluations. Testing must be performed not only for individual failure mechanisms, but also at the component level. Component level testing helps ensure that all potential failure mechanisms are addressed. There are two types of testing at the component level: electrical screens and stress/life tests. Electrical screens are performed using automated test systems and are similar to standard functional tests. Stress and life tests are performed over longer periods of time under accelerated conditions. These conditions could be higher voltage levels, higher temperatures, high humidity levels, or a combination of each.
In order to make an accurate prediction concerning the reliability of a component or system, one must have data on the behavior of the system, or its individual components or failure mechanisms. While these can be estimated based on other experiments or data, it is best to gather data from the system, components, or surrogate test structures directly. This material describes test structures, test equipment, and the type of tests that are performed to generate reliability data. It includes material on burn-in, humidity testing, thermal cycling, and other types of accelerated testing.
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Developing Electrical Screens
Developing Stress Tests and Life Tests
JEDEC Tests - Part 1
JEDEC Tests - Part 2
JEDEC Tests - Part 3
Screens, Stress Tests, and Life Tests
Reliability test equipment is an important consideration for accelerated testing. Reliability testing is performed at the wafer level and at the packaging level. In order to provide more timely feedback, manufacturers prefer to use wafer level testing. This section discusses equipment for both wafer level and packaged part level. We also cover probe technology for wafer level probing.
Reliability Test Equipment - Wafer Level
Reliability Test Equipment - Probes
Reliability Test Equipment - Packaged Parts
Testing at the wafer level requires appropriate electrical elements on the wafer. These electrical structures must simulate and magnify problems that normally occur on finished components. This section discusses test structures and their use in reliability testing.
Test Structures - Basics
Reliability Test Structures
Self Stressing Test Structures