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Listing of Some Material Parameters Relevant to Uses with Electronic Circuits.
Dielectric Constant, Dielectric Strength (Breakdown), etc.
Band Structures, Band Gap
Wide Range of Device Characteristics
Chemical Activity for Processes, Degradation
Latent Heats of Phase Transformations (Fusion, etc.)
Vapor Pressure, Sublimation
Elastic Modulus (Various)
Elastic-Plastic Characteristics, Yield Point, etc.
Friction, Adhesion, Wear
Single Crystal, Polycrystal, Amorphous, Epitaxial, etc.
Physical Properties of Several Semiconductors and Diamond
Flexure Strength (KPSI)
Young's Modulus (GPa)
Thermal Exp. Coeff. (10-6/oK) at 23oC
Thermal Exp. Coeff. (10-6/oK) at 200oC
Specific Heat (J/gmoK)
Thermal Conductivity (W/cmoK)
Band Gap (eV)
Physical Properties of Semiconductor Materials. Note: Data compiled by Texas Instruments.
Coefficients of Thermal Expansion and Resistivity
Thermal mismatch between materials is a major source of concern in microelectronics. A large mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion (TCE) between two bonded materials can result in large stresses and even cracking, delamination, or other types of failure. The following graphs show various TCE values for selected materials used in microelectronics processing and packaging. The larger the difference, the more concern there is for failure.
Coefficients of Thermal Expansion (Higher) for Selected Microcircuit Materials (see Figure 12)
Coefficients of Thermal Expansion (Lower and Polymers) for Selected Microcircuit Materials (see Figures 12 and 13)
Resistivity of Metals
Metal systems used in microelectronics are typically tradeoffs between performance, reliability, ease of which to process, and contamination issues. Resistivity is typically an important factor when considering circuit performance. Below is a graph of resistivity for various metals used in microelectronic processing.
Resistivity Values for Various Metals (see Figure 14).
Thermal Conductivity Values for Various Metals (see Figure 15).